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Sanctuary B. Il santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino.

Suburban sanctuary of Fondo Iozzino outside Pompeii.

Sanctuary of Zeus Meilichios or Demeter or Ceres or Hecate - Artemis.

Excavated 1960, 1992, 2014 onwards. Restoration 1992.

 

There was a partial excavation of the building in 1960.

A further excavation was conducted in the summer of 1992 in the former Fondo Iozzino, in government land in modern urban centre of Pompeii.

The Sanctuary, located in the heart of the modern city in what was once a Iozzino owned quarry for the extraction of lapilli, has since 2014 has borne witness to thorough and continuous research.

 

The sanctuary is a few hundred metres south of the Porta Nocera of Pompeii.

According to an information card in the SAP exhibition in 2017, it was a place of worship as early as the 7th century BC.

It was monumentalized with a limestone precinct in the 3rd century BC.

In the space defined by this structure, an additional tufa precinct was identified, in which were discovered three female clay sculptures dating to the mid to late 2nd century BC.

Bibliography

Bielfeldt R., 2007. Der Liber-Tempel in Pompeji in Sant’Abbondio. Oskisches Vorstdtheiligtum und kaiserzeitliches Kultlokal, dans MDAI-Römische Abteilung, 113, p. 365, Abb. 24.

Casadio G., Johnston P. A. (Eds.), Mystic Cults in Magna Graecia, p. 249, note 18.

Coarelli F., 2002. Pompeii. New York: Riverside Book Co, p. 100-1, p. 90.

Cooley, A. and M.G.L., 2004. Pompeii: A Sourcebook. London: Routledge, A8, p. 9.

D’Ambrosio A., Borriello M. 1990. Le Terrecotte Figurate Di Pompei. Roma: L’Erma di Bretschneider, p. 14; 18, p. 24, tav. 5; 20, p. 26, tav. 6.

D’Ambrosio A., Attività della Soprintendenza in Rivista di Studi Pompeiana VI, 1993, p. 219-221, figs 1-5.

De Caro in Dobbins, J. J. and Foss, P. W., 2008. The World of Pompeii. Oxford: Routledge, p. 80.

Guzzo P., in Dobbins, J. J. and Foss, P. W., 2008. The World of Pompeii. Oxford: Routledge, p. 185.

Pappalardo, U., 2001. La Descrizione di Pompei per Giuseppe Fiorelli (1875). Napoli: Massa Editore, p. 31 .

Small A.M., in Dobbins, J. J. and Foss, P. W., 2008. The World of Pompeii. Oxford: Routledge, p. 185.

Vetter E., 1953. Handbuch der Italischen Dialekte. Heidelberg: Winter, no. 8

SAP web site 2014 investigations report

 

Location

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. Map with location of temple = B.
Photo courtesy of Ruth Bielfeldt.
See Bielfeldt R., Der Liber-Tempel in Pompeji in Sant’Abbondio. Oskisches Vorstdtheiligtum und kaiserzeitliches Kultlokal, dans MDAI-Römische Abteilung, 113, 2007, p. 365, Abb. 24.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. Map with location of temple = B.

Photo courtesy of Ruth Bielfeldt.

See Bielfeldt R., Der Liber-Tempel in Pompeji in Sant’Abbondio. Oskisches Vorstdtheiligtum und kaiserzeitliches Kultlokal, dans MDAI-Römische Abteilung, 113, 2007, p. 365, Abb. 24.

 

Santuario extraurbano del fondo Iozzino. Temples Plan after Guzzo 2005, p. 12-13

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. Temples Plan after Guzzo 2005, p. 12-13

 

According to de Caro, he identifies as the Sanctuary of Zeus Meilichios this sacral complex on the same ancient road to Stabiae [as the one in Pompeii], but outside the city, on the Fondo Iozzino.

Here, a large retaining wall of opus quadratum in Sarno limestone encloses some sacella.

Fragments of bucchero, Campanian red-figure pottery and some terracotta statues attest the long life of the sanctuary and the importance of its cults, some certainly chthonic (a clay statue has been identified as Hekate).

We do not know whether this extra-urban sanctuary on the Fondo Iozzino housed the public cult of Ceres, which the Roman colony seems to have inherited together with that of a Venus Physica from the Samnite city.

These temples have definitely not been identified in the city [of Pompeii], and it is not impossible that the Samnite Kerres/Ceres here had the features of the Greek Malophoros.

See De Caro in Dobbins, J. J. and Foss, P. W., 2008. The World of Pompeii. Oxford: Routledge, p. 80.

 

According to Small, several extra-mural sanctuaries have been identified, all of which go back to the pre-Roman period (Figure 28.1 A–C).

The best known is a small temple of Dionysus situated on the top of a low hill at S. Abbondio near what was then the mouth of the Sarno river.

There was also a sanctuary at Bottaro in the so-called Borgo Marinaro, probably dedicated to Neptune.

The third was in the Contrada Iozzino to the south of the city, beside the road that leads from the Porta di Stabia, which is perhaps to be identified with the Temple of Jupiter Meilichios referred to in the Oscan inscription.

Its situation, surrounded by graves, would be appropriate for the cult of this chthonic god.

See Small A.M., in Dobbins, J. J. and Foss, P. W., 2008. The World of Pompeii. Oxford: Routledge, p. 185.

 

Pompeii Stabian Gate.  March 2009.  West side.  Oscan inscription.  Only four of the eleven lines were visible in March 2009, with seven buried.

Pompeii Stabian Gate. March 2009. Oscan inscription on west side.

Only four of the eleven lines were visible in March 2009, with seven buried.

 

Reproduction of the inscription by Fiorelli. [Descrizione 1875 p. 29]. Only four of the eleven lines were visible in March 2009, with seven buried. See Pappalardo, U., 2001. La Descrizione di Pompei per Giuseppe Fiorelli (1875). Napoli: Massa Editore. P. 31

Pompeii Porta Stabia. Reproduction of the inscription by Fiorelli. [Descrizione 1875 p. 29].

See Pappalardo, U., 2001. La Descrizione di Pompei per Giuseppe Fiorelli (1875). Napoli: Massa Editore. P. 31

According to Cooley, this translates as,

 

“M. Suttius, son of M., and Numerius Pontius, son of M., aediles, marked out this road as far as the lower Stabian road.

The road is marked out over 100 feet.

The same magistrates marked out the Pompeian road over 30 feet as far as the Temple of Jupiter Meilichios.

They officially established from scratch these roads and the road of Jupiter and the (?) road by order of the Pompeian chief magistrate.

The same aediles approved the work”.

 

The first sentence may end ‘Stabian bridge’ rather than ‘lower Stabian road’.

The identity of the Temple of Jupiter Meilichios mentioned here is disputed.

Traditionally it is identified as the small temple at VII.4.25 to the north of the theatres.

It may alternatively be a small shrine in a sanctuary just outside Pompeii, in the Fondo Iozzino.

See Cooley, A. and M.G.L., 2004. Pompeii: A Sourcebook. London: Routledge, A8, p. 9.

See Vetter E., 1953. Handbuch der Italischen Dialekte. Heidelberg: Winter, no. 8

 

According to Guzzo, between the third and second centuries BC, the Samnite magistrates administrated the roads that ran south from Pompeii.

There is epigraphic evidence for a “Stabian bridge,” which facilitated transit perhaps not only into town but also between the suburban sanctuaries of Fondo Iozzino and S. Abbondio (dedicated to Bacchus), on opposite banks of the river Sarno.

The location of the saltpans, documented by Oscan and Latin inscriptions, is uncertain.

See Guzzo P., in Dobbins, J. J. and Foss, P. W., 2008. The World of Pompeii. Oxford: Routledge, p. 185.

 

According to Coarelli, the inscription says that the street extended from the Stabian Gate by ten rods or pertiche and thus probably as far as the Sarno, which at this point ran close to the southern walls of Pompeii.

The inscription adds that the Via Pompeiana was limited by the length of 3 pertiche as far as the Cella of Jupiter Meilichios.

This suggested the latter road separated from the road to Stabia, just before the Sarno, turning to the east.

This would coincide perfectly with the location of Fondo Iozzino which was that exact distance to the east of the road to Stabia.

See Coarelli F., 2002. Pompeii. New York: Riverside Book Co, p. 100-1.

 

According to de Caro, he identifies as the Sanctuary of Zeus Meilichios this sacral complex on the same ancient road to Stabiae [as the one in Pompeii], but outside the city, on the Fondo Iozzino.

Here, a large retaining wall of opus quadratum in Sarno limestone encloses some sacella.

Fragments of bucchero, Campanian red-figure pottery and some terracotta statues attest the long life of the sanctuary and the importance of its cults, some certainly chthonic (a clay statue has been identified as Hekate).

We do not know whether this extra-urban sanctuary on the Fondo Iozzino housed the public cult of Ceres, which the Roman colony seems to have inherited together with that of a Venus Physica from the Samnite city.

These temples have definitely not been identified in the city [of Pompeii], and it is not impossible that the Samnite Kerres/Ceres here had the features of the Greek Malophoros.

See De Caro in Dobbins, J. J. and Foss, P. W., 2008. The World of Pompeii. Oxford: Routledge, p. 80.

 

According to Small, several extra-mural sanctuaries have been identified, all of which go back to the pre-Roman period (Figure 28.1 A–C).

The best known is a small temple of Dionysus situated on the top of a low hill at S. Abbondio near what was then the mouth of the Sarno river.

There was also a sanctuary at Bottaro in the so-called Borgo Marinaro, probably dedicated to Neptune.

The third was in the Contrada Iozzino to the south of the city, beside the road that leads from the Porta di Stabia, which is perhaps to be identified with the Temple of Jupiter Meilichios referred to in the Oscan inscription.

Its situation, surrounded by graves, would be appropriate for the cult of this chthonic god.

See Small A.M., in Dobbins, J. J. and Foss, P. W., 2008. The World of Pompeii. Oxford: Routledge, p. 185.

 

Layout and plan

 

Santuario extraurbano del fondo Iozzino. Plan of sanctuary.
Two concentric quadrangular enclosures were found.
The outer wall was thick and built in limestone.
The inner wall, rebuilt in the second century BC, was in opus incertum in tufa.
The inner wall surrounded three small temples.
This kind of structure revealed the secret nature of the cult, with ceremonies restricted to initiates.
See Coarelli F., 2002. Pompeii: English Language edition, p. 100-1.
See Casadio G., Johnston P. A. (Eds.), Mystic Cults in Magna Graecia, p. 249, note 18.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. Plan of sanctuary.

Two concentric quadrangular enclosures were found.

The outer wall was thick and built in limestone.

The inner wall, rebuilt in the second century BC, was in opus incertum in tufa.

The inner wall surrounded three small temples.

This kind of structure revealed the secret nature of the cult, with ceremonies restricted to initiates.

See Coarelli F., 2002. Pompeii: English Language edition, p. 100-1.

See Casadio G., Johnston P. A. (Eds.), Mystic Cults in Magna Graecia, p. 249, note 18.

 

Santuario extraurbano del fondo Iozzino. August 2012. Looking north. The inner and outer walls and the three temples can be seen. Photo courtesy of Google Earth.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. August 2012. Looking north.

The inner and outer walls and the three temples can be seen.

Photo courtesy of Google Earth.

 

Santuario extraurbano del fondo Iozzino. August 2012. Looking south. 
According to Coarelli, the three temples were open towards the north and had various altars between them.
This indicated a complex cult, dedicated to several “underworld” divinities.
Two female statues, dating from the end of the second century BC, were discovered, one full size and one half size.
These were almost certainly likenesses of Hecate and of Demeter, whose Roman equivalent was Ceres
This must have been a sanctuary to Hecate, Jupiter Meilichios and Ceres.
It was located at an important intersection outside Pompeii, near the port and the mouth of the Sarno.
See Coarelli F., 2002. Pompeii: English Language edition, p. 100-1.
Photo courtesy of Google Earth.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. August 2012. Looking south.

According to Coarelli, the three temples were open towards the north and had various altars between them.

This indicated a complex cult, dedicated to several “underworld” divinities.

Two female statues, dating from the end of the second century BC, were discovered, one of full size and one of half size.

These were almost certainly likenesses of Hecate and of Demeter, whose Roman equivalent was Ceres

This must have been a sanctuary to Hecate, Jupiter Meilichios and Ceres.

It was located at an important intersection outside Pompeii, near the port and the mouth of the Sarno.

See Coarelli F., 2002. Pompeii: English Language edition, p. 100-1.

Photo courtesy of Google Earth.

 

Remains

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014, site with new excavations in progress. Photo courtesy of SAP.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014, site with new excavations in progress.

Photo courtesy of SAP.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014, with new excavations in progress. Photo courtesy of SAP.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014, with new excavations in progress.

Photo courtesy of SAP.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014. New excavations in progress. Photo courtesy of SAP.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014. New excavations in progress.

Photo courtesy of SAP.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014. New excavations in progress in inner enclosure. 
Photo courtesy of SAP.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014. New excavations in progress in inner enclosure.

Photo courtesy of SAP.

 

Santuario extraurbano del fondo Iozzino. August 2012. Looking north across the sanctuary. Photo courtesy of Google Earth.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. August 2012. Looking north across the sanctuary.

Photo courtesy of Google Earth.

 

Santuario extraurbano del fondo Iozzino. August 2012. The east side of the sanctuary. The thick outer wall built in limestone can be seen. Photo courtesy of Google Earth.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. August 2012. The east side of the sanctuary.

The thick outer wall built in limestone can be seen. Photo courtesy of Google Earth.

 

Santuario extraurbano del fondo Iozzino. August 2012. The west side of the sanctuary. The inner wall and three small temples can be seen. Photo courtesy of Google Earth.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. August 2012. The west side of the sanctuary.

The inner wall and three small temples can be seen. Photo courtesy of Google Earth.

 

Santuario extraurbano del fondo Iozzino. August 2012. Three small temples behind the inner wall. Photo courtesy of Google Earth.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. August 2012. Three small temples behind the inner wall.

Photo courtesy of Google Earth.

 

1960 and 1992 excavations

 

Fondo Iozzino rivista VI p219 fig1

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 1993.

According to D’Ambrosio, the excavation conducted in 1960 had highlighted structures and recovered materials from an important suburban Sanctuary.

It consists of an outer wall of large blocks of Sarno limestone (Opus quadratum).

This surrounds a smaller and later wall, in Opus incertum, enclosing small structures, also in Opus incertum, the podiums of the two shrines as well as remains of walls of uncertain interpretation.

The external enclosure of blocks of limestone, found in collapse, was rebuilt and the structure in Opus incertum was restored before starting excavation.

On starting the excavation, it was soon apparent that the whole area of the inner fence was a compact layer (40 cm deep) consisting of a thick deposit of fragments of votive material mixed with a little earth.

This had been partly affected by exploration conducted in 1960.

Since this layer falls below the foundations structures in Opus incertum mentioned above, in some places even overlapping the deposit layer, we can deduce that this is prior to the construction of the shrines and the enclosure in Opus Incertum.
It also appeared sealed by a paving of pebbles, set in mortar, which is preserved in some points next to the structures.

 

The material found does not differ from that recovered in the excavation of 1960.

Thousands of fragments were recovered consisting of:

Ceramica a vernice nera - black-painted pottery (especially plates and cups) from end of IV and III-II century B.C.;
Ceramic achromatic (uncoloured pottery);

Red-figure Italiota pottery from the end of the fourth century. B.C.;

A huge amount of miniature ceramics, consisting of miniature cups and goblets of crude workmanship;
Campanian made bucchero [a grey terracotta pottery] (carinated bowls and kantharoi);
Fragments of arule (miniature altars) and architectural terracotta (some of the latter from the Archaic period);
A few fragments of coroplastics, but some of good workmanship;
Some bronze coins.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. Perfume bottle and miniature goblet. Photo courtesy of SANP, negative number 85811.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. Perfume bottle and miniature goblet.

Photo courtesy of SAP, negative number 85812.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. Ceramica a vernice nera - black-painted pottery. Photo courtesy of SANP, negative number 85811.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. Ceramica a vernice nera - black-painted pottery.

Photo courtesy of SAP, negative number 85811.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. Italiota red figure skyphos. Photo courtesy of SANP, negative number 85808.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. Italiota red figure skyphos.

Photo courtesy of SAP, negative number 85808.

 

From an initial, summary, examination of structures and materials, this has been a place of worship since the 6th century BC (buccheri, architectural terracotta).

Judging from the abundance of votive material must have had a period of great importance in the Hellenistic age.

Probably in the III century B.C. (judging from the materials and the construction techniques used and according to the chronological framework that traditionally is given) the shrine took a monumental aspect with the building of the outer sacred area (temenos) bounded by the great wall in Opus quadratum.

 

In Roman times (as a working hypothesis one might think of the years following the conquest of Pompeii by Sulla) there had to have been a reorganization of the area, with the dumping of votive material and, soon after, with the construction of the wall and structures in Opus incertum.

The state of the structures in Opus incertum and the partial collapse of the ancient outer wall, seem to prove that at the time of the eruption, the sanctuary was abandoned.

See D’Ambrosio A., Attività della Soprintendenza in Rivista di Studi Pompeiana VI, 1993, p. 219-221, figg. 1-5.

 

The statues

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. Three statues found upturned in the lapilli between the aediculae of the temple in 1960.
On the left is a statue of Aphrodite or Artemis-Hecate.
The other two statues may be identified with Demeter or Ceres. 
On show in the Villa Imperiale VIII.1.a, April 2016.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. Three statues found upturned in the lapilli between the aediculae of the temple in 1960.

On the left is a statue of Aphrodite or Artemis-Hecate.

The other two statues may be identified with Demeter or Ceres.

On show in the Villa Imperiale VIII.1.a, April 2016.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. June 2017. Female statue possibly of Ceres/Demeter, dating to the mid to late 2nd century BC. 
Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.
According to D’Ambrosio and Borriello, the statue was headless, fractured at about half of the neck.
The back is recomposed from fragments; the right forearm is reattached. 
The right hand is missing; the fingers of the left, the toes and the base plate are missing.
There are slight gaps and large abrasions on the rear of the statue and chipping in the drapery.
Now in SAP deposits. Inventory number 13151.
See D’Ambrosio A., Borriello M. 1990. Le Terrecotte Figurate Di Pompei. Roma: L’Erma di Bretschneider, 20, p. 26, tav. 6.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. June 2017. Female statue possibly of Ceres/Demeter, dating to the mid to late 2nd century BC.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

According to D’Ambrosio and Borriello, the statue was headless, fractured at about half of the neck.

The back is recomposed from fragments; the right forearm is reattached.

The right hand is missing; the fingers of the left, the toes and the base plate are missing.

There are slight gaps and large abrasions on the rear of the statue and chipping in the drapery.

Now in SAP deposits. Inventory number 13151.

See D’Ambrosio A., Borriello M. 1990. Le Terrecotte Figurate Di Pompei. Roma: L’Erma di Bretschneider, 20, p. 26, tav. 6.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 1960. Statue found upturned in the lapilli between the aediculae of the temple. Photo courtesy of SAP.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 1960. Statue found upturned in the lapilli between the aediculae of the temple.

Photo courtesy of SAP.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. June 2017. Statue of Artemis-Hecate or Aphrodite, dating to the mid to late 2nd century BC. 
Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.
Now in SAP deposits, inventory number 13152.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. June 2017. Statue of Artemis-Hecate or Aphrodite, dating to the mid to late 2nd century BC.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

Now in SAP deposits, inventory number 13152.

 

Santuario extraurbano del fondo Iozzino. Statue of Artemis-Hecate. 
It was reconstructed from fragments.
Height is 78,9cm; Width max. 34,5cm; Profile 22,8cm.
Now in SAP deposits, inventory number 13152.
See D’Ambrosio A., Borriello M. 1970. Le Terrecotte Figurate Di Pompei. Roma: L’Erma di Bretschneider, 18, p. 24, tav. 5.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. Statue of Artemis-Hecate.

Now in SAP deposits, inventory number 13152.

According to D’Ambrosio and Borriello, it was reconstructed from fragments.

Height is 78,9cm; Width max. 34,5cm; Profile 22,8cm.

The amount of terracotta from the sanctuary of the Fondo Iozzino was too small to make any judgments.

However, it should be emphasized that this sacred area has returned two of the very few large statues.

One of these can be considered the best example of coroplastics so far noted at Pompeii.

The three pottery finds from the Fondo Iozzino were found during the partial exploration of the building at that location in 1960.

See D’Ambrosio A., Borriello M. 1990. Le Terrecotte Figurate Di Pompei. Roma: L’Erma di Bretschneider, 18, p. 24, tav. 5.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. June 2017. Third statue, possibly of Ceres/Demeter, dating to the mid to late 2nd century BC, found at the sanctuary. 
Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.
Now in SAP deposits.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. June 2017.

Third statue, possibly of Ceres/Demeter, dating to the mid to late 2nd century BC, found at the sanctuary.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

Now in SAP deposits.

 

Ceramics exhibited in 2017

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. June 2017. Finds from site. Now in SAP deposits.
Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.
The exhibition information card identifies these as:
1:   Red figure kylix with woman’s head, 4th century BC
2:   Campanian painted skyphos, second half of 4th century BC
3:   Rim of painted Campanian bowl, second half of 4th century BC
4:   Base of Campanian bowl with female head, second half of 4th century BC
5:   Miniature kraters, 4th to 2nd century BC
6:   Miniature plates, 3rd to 2nd century BC
7:   Black gloss cups, 3rd century BC
8:   Coarse ware beakers, 4th to 2nd century BC
9:   Terracotta figurine of woman nursing a child, 4th to 3rd century BC
10: Votive iron keys, Hellenistic period
11:  Bronze rings, Hellenistic period

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. June 2017. Finds from site. Now in SAP deposits.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

The exhibition information card identifies these as:

1:   Red figure kylix with woman’s head, 4th century BC

2:   Campanian painted skyphos, second half of 4th century BC

3:   Rim of painted Campanian bowl, second half of 4th century BC

4:   Base of Campanian bowl with female head, second half of 4th century BC

5:   Miniature kraters, 4th to 2nd century BC

6:   Miniature plates, 3rd to 2nd century BC

7:   Black gloss cups, 3rd century BC

8:   Coarse ware beakers, 4th to 2nd century BC

9:   Terracotta figurine of woman nursing a child, 4th to 3rd century BC

10: Votive iron keys, Hellenistic period

11:  Bronze rings, Hellenistic period

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. June 2017. Finds from site. Now in SAP deposits.
Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.
The exhibition information card identifies these as:
1:   Campanian bucchero kantharos with Etruscan inscription, “mi marmarces tetanas” “of Marmarce Tetana” second half of 6th century BC
2:   Campanian bucchero kantharos with Etruscan inscription, second half of 6th century BC
3:   Campanian bucchero bowl with graffito bird, second quarter of 6th to 1st quarter of 5th century BC
4:   Bucchero chalice with fan motifs, end of 7th to 1st quarter 6th century BC
5:   Bucchero olpe, second half of 6th to 1st quarter of 5th century BC
6:   Campanian bucchero bowl, second half of 6th century BC
7:   Campanian bucchero kantharos, second half of 6th century BC
8:   Attic black-figure lekythoi with palmette decoration, circa 480 BC
9:   Attic black-figure lekythoi with hoplites, of 6th to beginning of 5th century BC
10:  Corinthian aryballos decorated with hoplites, 580 to 560 BC
11:  Bowl with painted decoration, archaic period
12:  Faience bead, archaic period
13:  Iron arrow heads, 6th century BC
14:  Sherds of bucchero kantharoi and cups with graffiti, 6th century BC

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. June 2017. Finds from site. Now in SAP deposits.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

The exhibition information card identifies these as:

1:   Campanian bucchero kantharos with Etruscan inscription, “mi marmarces tetanas = “of Marmarce Tetana, second half of 6th century BC

2:   Campanian bucchero kantharos with Etruscan inscription, second half of 6th century BC

3:   Campanian bucchero bowl with graffito bird, second quarter of 6th to 1st quarter of 5th century BC

4:   Bucchero chalice with fan motifs, end of 7th to 1st quarter 6th century BC

5:   Bucchero olpe, second half of 6th to 1st quarter of 5th century BC

6:   Campanian bucchero bowl, second half of 6th century BC

7:   Campanian bucchero kantharos, second half of 6th century BC

8:   Attic black-figure lekythoi with palmette decoration, circa 480 BC

9:   Attic black-figure lekythoi with hoplites, of 6th to beginning of 5th century BC

10:  Corinthian aryballos decorated with hoplites, 580 to 560 BC

11:  Bowl with painted decoration, archaic period

12:  Faience bead, archaic period

13:  Iron arrow heads, 6th century BC

14:  Sherds of bucchero kantharoi and cups with graffiti, 6th century BC

 

2014 excavations

From the SAP web site

 

An unknown chapter in the history of Pompeii before AD 79 can now be reconstructed through the votive offerings which have been rediscovered in the sanctuaries. Objects hailing from all over the Mediterranean have been found, including weapons, pottery with Etruscan inscriptions and jewellery given as an offering for the most important phases of life: from the passage from childhood to adulthood, marriage, the first child and to the initiation of arms.

These are objects well known to history, but they have been discovered in great numbers in the excavations which have recently been conducted within the sacred areas of Pompeii (the Sanctuary of Apollo, Athena and Hercules and the Capitolium) and in many cases they have been found intact, particularly in the Suburban Sanctuary of Fondo Iozzino, where they have been found almost as if in the moment of their deposition, and date to the long period between the 6th century to at least the beginning of the first century BC.   

 

The Sanctuary, located in the heart of the modern city in what was once a Iozzino owned quarry for the extraction of lapilli, has been studied on many occasions since 1960, and since 2014 has borne witness to thorough and continuous research.

 

Recent investigations have focused on the space between the two sacred precincts, and have brought to light a layer of activity dating back to the 6th century BC, in which a great many bronze and iron weapons have been found. Ceramic pottery, particularly in bucchero, has also been found, intentionally deposited, including examples of brochettes, kantharoi and bowls. Among the weapons: short swords, around twenty spearheads made of iron, and sometimes with bronze handles, javelin tips, an iron sceptre - exceedingly rare in Southern Italy - and a large bronze shield with a decorated inner band into which the arm was placed. 

The most striking aspect of the finds dated to the Archaic Age is the sheer quantity of bucchero pottery with engraved inscriptions in the Etruscan language, which represents the largest corpus of Etruscan inscriptions yet found in a single context in Southern Italy. The bucchero pottery was employed in sacrifices which saw offerings of red or white wine, or herbal infusions, to the gods. 

The inscriptions were made on the basin and on the feet of the bowls and banquet vases, which after usage were deposited upside down on the ground.

These inscriptions reveal the names of those who made the offerings - Etruscans who also came from Tuscany, and of the deities to whom the sanctuary was dedicated - the god ‘apa’ or ‘father’ - perhaps Jupiter Meilichios. Beside these inscriptions there are also numerous engraved symbols, such as crosses, five-pointed stars, asterisks and tree saplings. Together with these offerings, jewellery such as silver or gold rings with decorated stones have been found, and pottery hailing from all over the Ancient Mediterranean: black varnished ceramic from Attica, perfume vases from Corinth, legged ointment containers from the Ionian world and Etrusco-Corinthan cups.

See http://www.pompeiisites.org/Sezione.jsp?titolo=Votive+Offerings+Pre-Roman&idSezione=7533

 

Finds

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations. Votive pottery offerings and black finish bowls.
A large amount of pottery hailing from all over the Ancient Mediterranean has been found: 
black varnished ceramic from Attica, perfume vases from Corinth, legged ointment containers from the Ionian world and Etrusco-Corinthan cups.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations. Votive pottery offerings and black finish bowls.

A large amount of pottery hailing from all over the Ancient Mediterranean has been found: 

black varnished ceramic from Attica, perfume vases from Corinth, legged ointment containers from the Ionian world and Etrusco-Corinthan cups.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations. Finds including weapons in the foreground with pottery and jewellery at the rear.
Among the weapons found were short swords, around twenty spearheads made of iron, and sometimes with bronze handles, javelin tips, an iron sceptre - exceedingly rare in Southern Italy - and a large bronze shield with a decorated inner band into which the arm was placed. 
Photo courtesy of SAP.
See http://www.pompeiisites.org/Sezione.jsp?titolo=Votive+Offerings+Pre-Roman&idSezione=7533

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations. Finds including weapons in the foreground with pottery and jewellery at the rear.

Among the weapons found were short swords, around twenty spearheads made of iron, and sometimes with bronze handles, javelin tips, an iron sceptre - exceedingly rare in Southern Italy - and a large bronze shield with a decorated inner band into which the arm was placed. 

Photo courtesy of SAP.

See http://www.pompeiisites.org/Sezione.jsp?titolo=Votive+Offerings+Pre-Roman&idSezione=7533

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations. An iron sceptre was found, exceedingly rare in Southern Italy.
Photo courtesy of SAP.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations.

An iron sceptre was found, exceedingly rare in Southern Italy.

Photo courtesy of SAP.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014. Spear heads.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014. Spear heads.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations. Jewellery finds.
Photo courtesy of SAP.
See http://www.pompeiisites.org/Sezione.jsp?titolo=Votive+Offerings+Pre-Roman&idSezione=7533

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations. Jewellery finds.

Photo courtesy of SAP.

See http://www.pompeiisites.org/Sezione.jsp?titolo=Votive+Offerings+Pre-Roman&idSezione=7533

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations. Gold ring with red stone centre.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations. Gold ring with red stone centre.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations. Turquoise bead decorated with gold, white and blue ring patterns.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations. Turquoise bead decorated with gold, white and blue ring patterns.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations. Silver? Ring with red stone.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations. Silver? Ring with red stone.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations. Decorated single handled jug and fragments of a black pottery jug.
Photo courtesy of SAP.
See http://www.pompeiisites.org/Sezione.jsp?titolo=Votive+Offerings+Pre-Roman&idSezione=7533

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations.

Decorated single handled jug and fragments of a black pottery jug.

Photo courtesy of SAP.

See http://www.pompeiisites.org/Sezione.jsp?titolo=Votive+Offerings+Pre-Roman&idSezione=7533

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014. Decorated single handled jug.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014.

Decorated single handled jug.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations. Decorated single handled trefoil jug and small round undecorated jug.
Photo courtesy of SAP.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations.

Decorated single handled trefoil jug and small round undecorated jug.

Photo courtesy of SAP.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014. Decorated object.
Photo courtesy of SAP.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014. Decorated object.

Photo courtesy of SAP.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014. Three single handled jugs.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014. Three single handled jugs.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014. Two double handled jugs.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014. Two double handled jugs.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014. Decorated pottery with two horn style handles.
According to the SAP website, the most striking aspect of the finds dated to the Archaic Age is the sheer quantity of bucchero pottery with engraved inscriptions in the Etruscan language, which represents the largest corpus of Etruscan inscriptions yet found in a single context in Southern Italy. The bucchero pottery was employed in sacrifices which saw offerings of red or white wine, or herbal infusions, to the gods. 
The inscriptions were made on the basin and on the feet of the bowls and banquet vases, which after usage were deposited upside down on the ground.
These inscriptions reveal the names of those who made the offerings - Etruscans who also came from Tuscany, and of the deities to whom the sanctuary was dedicated - the god ‘apa’ or ‘father’ - perhaps Jupiter Meilichios.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014. Decorated pottery with two horn style handles.

According to the SAP website, the most striking aspect of the finds dated to the Archaic Age is the sheer quantity of bucchero pottery with engraved inscriptions in the Etruscan language, which represents the largest corpus of Etruscan inscriptions yet found in a single context in Southern Italy. The bucchero pottery was employed in sacrifices which saw offerings of red or white wine, or herbal infusions, to the gods. 

The inscriptions were made on the basin and on the feet of the bowls and banquet vases, which after usage were deposited upside down on the ground.

These inscriptions reveal the names of those who made the offerings - Etruscans who also came from Tuscany, and of the deities to whom the sanctuary was dedicated - the god ‘apa’ or ‘father’ - perhaps Jupiter Meilichios.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014. Decorated pottery with representation of a face.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014. Decorated pottery with representation of a face.